PCOS or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a very common hormonal problem. It is most commonly seen in reproductive or childbearing women of age between 20-40 years.
In India 1 out of every 5 women are found to have this disease. Today in this video we will discuss the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and the treatment options of this disease. Above all else, we can investigate the symptoms of PCOS.
First, I want to clarify that both PCOS and PCOD i.e., Polycystic ovarian syndrome and polycystic ovarian disease are the names of the same disease. Since it has multiple symptoms, it is called syndrome. Like irregular periods i.e., if it comes late or falls short.
If any women have less than 8 periods per year then it can be considered as a symptom of PCOS. In some women, there is a chance to have heavy periods. Because if it happens after a long time then due to the shedding of thick uterus lining a heavy period will occur other than this there will be overweight and it is hard to reduce it.
And most commonly obesity is found around the waist. The next symptom is excessive hair growth. That will occur on your face, chest, back or thighs other than this there will be hair loss on the scalp or temple area. In certain people, there is a possibility to have oily skin, it will make pimples – acne or skin break out their face or body.
One more important symptom is the difficulty in getting pregnant in PCOS. Because of hormonal disturbance, irregular egg formation will take place, due to these periods will come late and also there is a difficulty in conceiving too.
Now let’s talk about the causes of PCOS.
The first one is hormonal imbalance; our ovaries will make both male and female hormones. But in this disease the level of testosterone will increase. Other than this the prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels will increase and sex hormone-binding globulin will decrease all these will alter the normal ovary function.
The second one is the genetic factor that is if anyone in your family, like your mother or sister has PCOS then you may have a high risk of having the disease. The third one is Insulin resistance In our body, there is a hormone called insulin, which digest glucose.
In PCOS low-quality insulin will produce because of this, you need to secrete more insulin to digest the same sugar. Due to this your insulin level will increase and that leads to weight gain.
How to confirm PCOS diagnosis?
If you are feeling some symptoms of PCOS then you should consult a Doctor your Doctor will ask about the medical history and symptoms like your cycle, skin changes, hair loss, weight gain, and family history.
Then we will prescribe you certain blood tests that you have to do in an empty stomach or during the 2nd day of your periods. And the name of the test is FSH i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone, LH i.e., luteinizing hormone, lipid profile, glucose tolerance test to measure your insulin resistance.
Thyroid and prolactin test and if you have acne or hair fall then free testosterone will also be tested. We will also do the ultrasound scanning to check your ovaries and if your ovaries have small cysts i.e., polycystic ovaries that will help us for the diagnosis.
What are the treatment options for PCOS?
It has two types of treatments. The first one is lifestyle changes and the second one is medications. We are trying to give you more lifestyle changes so that your medicine intake can be reduced.
The first one among this is weight loss. If you are heavyweight body, then by weight reduction your insulin quality, it will improve hormone levels. Egg arrangement will occur itself and on the off chance that you are getting ready for pregnancy that will also get benefited. The second one is to follow a healthy diet.
What not to eat in PCOS?
Usually, I will advise my patients to avoid sweet items like cool drinks, jaggery, honey and even to avoid sweet fruits like sapodilla, mango etc. And other than that you should avoid white flour-based products like biscuits, pizza, burger etc.
Also you should take starch-rich foods like potato, rice etc. in a limited manner. And you should limit the intake of tea and coffee.
What to eat on PCOS?
In PCOS you can eat protein-rich foods like chickpea, beans, black-eyed peas, eggs, non-veg etc. Other than that you can eat green leafy vegetables and nuts like walnuts, chia seeds, flaxseed etc.
Also in oils, you can take rice bran and canola oil. If you want to know more about diet in PCOS then ask us in the comment section.
The third one is exercise
Doing exercise during PCOD will improve the nature of your insulin and furthermore decrease insulin resistance. You can do any type of exercise, and our recommendation is you should do that 30-45 min in a week for at least 5 days.
You can do yoga, Zumba, cross-fit, hit anything you like but do that regularly. And the fourth one is proper sleeping i.e., sleep for at least 8 hours, eat timely, reduce the stress that is also very important in PCOS treatment
What are the medicines in PCOS?
In PCOS the selection of medicines relies upon the symptoms that you have. If you have menstrual disturbances we will give you oral contraceptives that are also called birth control pills. This you have to take for 3 weeks and when you complete it you will get periods in the next week.
Like the same way you have to take it for 3 to 6 months after that, your periods will happen normally. If you want to know more about birth control pills then please click the link that is given above. If you have a weight issue then we will give you Metformin or Myo Inositol.
That helps to reduce your weight and also improves the insulin quality. If you have acne or hair related problems then we will give you anti-testosterone medicines. Like spironolactone, Flutamide or Finasteride. The long term use of this improves your hair issues.
If you are planning for pregnancy then your Doctor will give you Clomiphene or Letrozole. This will help in egg arrangement and it begins from the second or third day of periods. It will decrease the estrogen level and increment the FSH that will improve the egg development. And that will help you to become pregnant easily.
I hope all your doubts about PCOS are now cleared if you have any doubts you can mention that in the comment section if you liked this blog then please like, share and subscribe to our blog.